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I had to hire a grab lorry as the volume would have been too much for a skip! When working on a large earth moving project it is even more critical to calculate this correctly. To use a bulking factor number you have to multiply the bulking factor number by the excavated volume size. For instance, a bulking factor for Clay and Gravel is ...

Calculate the percentage retained on 20mm sieve and 4.75mm sieve, and the percentage passing 4.75mm sieve. ... Factors Affecting Compaction of Soil - Effect on Different Soil Types. Compaction of Soil - Test …

The compaction factor test (Powers 1968; Neville 1981; Bartos 1992; Bartos, Sonebi, and Tamimi 2002) measures the degree of compaction resulting from the application of a standard amount of work. The test was developed in Britain in the late 1940s and has been standardized as British Standard 1881-103.

Compacted Volume - (Measured in Cubic Meter) - Compacted Volume is the volume of soil after compaction that done on excavated soil. Original volume of Soil - (Measured in Cubic Meter) - Original volume of Soil is the volume of soil before excavation. Shrinkage Factor - Shrinkage Factor is the specific volume change of soil relative to its water …

174 rowsIf you combine the two factors you get a factor (Spike's compaction factor) which will convert loose state volume to compacted volume of the material. You can use this factor to estimate the amount of material you need to bring in for a certain area that …

Shrink and Swell Factors. ... For light soil excavation and for fills constructed on swampy ground subject to settlement, the shrink may range from 20 to 40 percent or even greater. ... The underlying soil below embankments may also settle and compact, or be displaced, due to placement and compaction of the embankment, …

Soil compaction occurs when soil par- ticles are compressed together— especially when the soil is wet— destroying soil structure, reducing porosity, and leading to a more …

The saturation curve, or zero air voids curve, is a plot of soil density vs moisture at a theoretical saturation level (zero air voids). Points for plotting the curve are calculated from compacted dry unit weights of the …

• Soil in those portions of the bedding and haunch areas directly under the pipe is difficult to com-pact. • Table 1 Equivalent USCS and AASHTO Soil The soil in the haunch area from the foundation to the pipe springline provides significant support to the pipe and reduces pipe stresses. • Compaction level of the soil directly above the

The grading for a roadway is proposed as follows, calculate the net cut/fill necessary for the road between stations 8+09 and 9+85. Use an expansion (swell) factor of 21% and a compaction factor of 0.86 to determine the number of trucks of soil (12 cubic yards per truck) needed to be added or removed from the site. Use the photo below.

The soil compaction is carried out in three layers. The height of collar is 60 mm which is removable. The mold is placed over a detachable base plate. In certain cases, the soil taken for testing may retain on 4.75mm sieve. If this amount is greater than 20%, then a mold of larger internal diameter say 150mm is employed.

Soil is formed in place or deposited by various forces of nature— such as glaciers, wind, lakes and rivers—residually or organically. Following are important elements in soil …

Question: Problem 5: (20 points) Calculate the number of trucks (1 truck = 12 cubic yards) needed to remove or add soil to the site for the following. The soil has an expansion factor of 1.2 and a compaction factor of 0.9. (Note: make sure to specify if the truckloads are added or removed from the site.)

The swell factor of soil is the amount of volume increase from the undisturbed (BCY) to the excavated (LCY) state due to the air pockets (fluff) created. Swelling pressure is the pressure that the expansive soil exerts if it is not allowed to swell or if the soil volume change is arrested. When it comes to light soil excavation, the …

If you are given a bulk factor of 0.15, use 1.15 in the equation so that the soil becomes 15% larger. The shrink factor will make the in-situ volume smaller, so it will be less than 1. If you are given a shrink factor of 0.20, use 0.80 in …

Disadvantages of Compaction Factor Test. The disadvantages of the Compaction Factor Test include the following: Limited applicability: The test is primarily suitable for assessing the workability of concrete with low to medium slump values and may not be as accurate for highly fluid or stiff mixes. Subjectivity: The test relies on the …

Soil compaction plays a pivotal role in civil engineering, ensuring the stability and durability of various structures. Understanding the testing methods, factors influencing compaction, its effects on soil properties, and the methods used in the field is essential for successful construction projects and optimal engineering performance. Read ...

Calculate the Compaction Factor Value using the formula: Compaction Factor = W P / W F where A is the weight of partially compacted concrete, and B is the weight of fully compacted concrete. In addition to these steps, there are a few points that must be kept in mind while performing the Compaction Factor Test:

Definition. Compaction is the densification of soils by removal of air through the application of mechanical energy. The degree of compaction is measured in terms of its dry unit …

What is compaction? Soil compaction occurs when soil particles are pressed together, reducing pore space between them (Figure 1). Heavily compacted soils contain few large pores, less total pore volume and, …

The grading for a roadway is proposed as follows, calculate the net cut/fill necessary for the road between stations 8+17 and 9+61. Use an expansion (swell) factor of 26% and a compaction factor of 0.95 to determine the number of trucks of soil ( 12 cubic yards per truck) needed to be added or removed from the site.

If you are checking the field compaction of a layer of soil and the compaction curve for the soil is shown in Figure 1. From the specifications, the dry density of the compacted soil should be at least 95% of the maximum value and within ±1% of the optimum water content. When you did the sand cone test, the volume of the soil excavated was ...

The British standard BS 1377: Part 4 provides a method to calculate a laboratory compaction factor for materials like soil. The compaction factor is determined by compacting a sample at varying moisture …

4. Calculate the Dry Density of Soil. After getting the result of moisture content you can now calculate the ρd from the formula written in "How to do a compaction test or In-situ density test." ρd = (100 x 1.78)/(100 + 8.78) Therefore, ρd = 1. 64 Mg/m³ . 5. Calculate the Degree of Compaction

Fig. 1. Compacting factor apparatus. The upper hopper is filled with concrete, this being placed gently so that at this stage no work is done on the concrete to produce compaction. The bottom door of the hopper is then released and the concrete falls into the lower hopper. This is smaller than the upper one and is, therefore, filled to overflowing, …

Use an expansion factor of 1.25 % and a compaction factor of -10% For the data tabulated, calculate the number of dump trucks (12 yd 3 ) needed to remove or bring in soil to the site to account for the cut and fill between stations 10 + 00 and 15 + 00.

This test helps to know the compaction factor of the fresh concrete which means to which extent the prepared fresh concrete can be compacted in comparison to without doing any external work (like rodding, tamping, and vibration). The compaction factor is nothing but the ratio of densities of the same fresh concrete, one obtains from the test assuming …

compaction factor is level of compaction we achieved compare with a standard value which we had achieved in lab testing. Calculation of moisture content in the sample also an important parameter, if the value calculated goes wrong, it will also impact on the compaction factor calculations. When we find there is something wrong …

Put air-dried soil into a large mixing pan (10 lbs. of soil for a 4-inch mold, and 15 lbs. for a 6-inch mold). Pulverize the soil and run it through a # 4 sieve. Use the balance to determine the weight of the soil samples and …

through soil. This is important if the soil is being used to retain water such as would be required for an earth dam. • Compaction can prevent the build up of large water pressures that cause soil to liquefy during earthquakes. 3.2 Factors affecting Compaction • Water content of the soil • The type of soil being compacted